Solutions A History of Modern Psychology - 10th Edition - Chapter 15

15.1 Describe the accomplishments, failures, and ultimate fates of the major schools of thought in psychology.
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15.2 What were the precursors of cognitive psychology?
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15.3 How did the changing Zeitgeist in physics influence cognitive psychology?
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15.4 What were the early signs of a cognitive revolution in psychology?
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15.5 What personal factors motivated Miller and Neisser?
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15.6 In what ways did cognitive psychology differ from behavioral psychology?
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15.7 What does the term “ecological validity” mean?
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15.8 Discuss the shift from clocks to computers as metaphors for the mind.
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15.9 What practical need in World War II led to the development of the modern computer? What was ENIAC?
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15.10 What did the most famous chess match of the twentieth century tell us about the ability of machines to think?
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15.11 How are the Turing Test and the Chinese Room problem used to examine the proposition that computers can think?
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15.12 Discuss three ways in which cognitive psychology differs from behaviorism.
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15.13 Describe cognitive neuroscience and the techniques used to map the brain.
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15.14 How does cognitive neuroscience relate to earlier attempts to explain brain functioning?
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15.15 What is neuroprosthetics and how does it involve cognitive neuroscience?
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15.16 What are the limitations to the use of introspection in cognitive psychology?
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15.17 In what ways does the current version of the cognitive unconscious differ from the Freudian view of the unconscious?
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15.18 Describe the current view of animal cognition.
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15.19 In your opinion, are animals capable of cognitive activities, or are we attributing human functions to them that they do not really possess?
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15.20 How does evidence favoring the existence of personality in animals support Darwin’s notion of evolution and the field of evolutionary psychology?
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15.21 Describe what is meant by the terms “embedded cognition” and “cognitive overload.”
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15.22 What is the present status of cognitive psychology?
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15.23 Describe the relationship between evolutionary psychology and cognitive psychology. Which one draws upon the other?
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15.24 In your opinion, has psychology reached the stage of a unified paradigm that unites all the different approaches to psychology? Do you think evolutionary psychology is likely to be the final stage in the fractious and fragmented history of the field?
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Solutions A History of Modern Psychology - 10th Edition - Chapter 13

13.1 According to Freud, what were the three great shocks in history that were delivered to the collective human ego?
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13.2 Describe the historical development of psychoanalysis relative to the other schools of thought in psychology.
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13.3 What was the role of the unconscious in structuralism, functionalism, and behaviorism?
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13.4 Describe the theories of the unconscious developed by Leibnitz and Herbart.
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13.5 Discuss two major sources of influence on the psychoanalytic movement.
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13.6 How were mentally ill persons dealt with before the time of Freud?
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13.7 In what ways was Freud influenced by Mesmer and by Charcot?
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13.8 What was the Emmanuel Movement? How did it influence the acceptance of psychoanalysis in the United States?
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13.9 Discuss the influences of evolutionary theory and of the notion of mechanism on the development of psychoanalysis.
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13.10 In what ways was psychoanalysis influenced by Freud’s own childhood experiences and by his own views on sexuality?
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13.11 Why was the case of Anna O. of such importance in Freud’s thinking?
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13.12 What was the controversy about Freud’s view of childhood seduction experiences?
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13.13 Describe the psychosexual stages of development.
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13.14 Define repression, instinct, id, ego, and superego. What are the life instincts and the death instinct?
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13.15 What is the therapeutic significance of free association, of resistances, and of repression?
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13.16 In what ways do Freud’s proposed levels of personality differ from one another? Why are they so often in conflict?
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13.17 What is the relationship between psychoanalysis and mainstream academic psychology?
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13.18 How did Freud attempt to explain mental processes in mechanistic and deterministic terms?
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13.19 Describe the results of attempts to test Freudian concepts experimentally.
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13.20 What criticisms have been made of Freud’s methods for collecting data? How did Freud believe his concepts should be tested?
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13.21 What, in general, has been the impact of psychoanalysis on psychology and on popular culture?
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13.22 Do you believe that Freud was correct when he included himself in the list of the three people who changed the world?
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Solutions A History of Modern Psychology - 10th Edition - Chapter 14

14.1 What personal experiences influenced Maslow’s approach to psychology?
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14.2 In what ways did the neo-Freudians change Freudian psychoanalysis?
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14.3 How did the changing Zeitgeist in social science influence the later development of psychoanalysis?
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14.4 Describe Anna Freud’s relationship with her father. What changes did she introduce into psychoanalysis?
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14.5 To what does the word object refer in object relations theory?
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14.6 How did the approaches of Melanie Klein and Heinz Kohut differ from each other, and from Freudian psychoanalysis?
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14.7 In what ways did Jung’s life experiences influence his analytical psychology?
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14.8 Describe the Jungian concepts of the collective unconscious and the archetypes.
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14.9 How did Jung’s analytical psychology differ from Freudian psychoanalysis?
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14.10 On what issues did Adler and Freud disagree?
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14.11 Explain what Adler meant by “style of life.” According to Adler’s theory, how do inferiority feelings develop?
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14.12 What lasting contributions to psychology have been made by Jung and by Adler?
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14.13 How were Horney’s views of personality influenced by her childhood experiences?
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14.14 In what ways did Freud and Horney differ in their views of feminine psychology?
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14.15 Explain Horney’s concepts of basic anxiety, neurotic needs, and idealized self-image.
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14.16 On what grounds did the humanistic psychologists criticize behaviorism and psychoanalysis?
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14.17 Compare the views of Maslow and Rogers on self-actualization and the characteristics of the psychologically healthy person.
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14.18 On what grounds have the theories of Maslow and Rogers been criticized?
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14.19 For what reasons did humanistic psychology fail to reach its goal of transforming psychology?
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14.20 In your opinion, will the positive psychology movement have a more lasting influence on the field than the humanistic psychology movement did? Why or why not?
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14.21 What factors have been shown to affect subjective well-being? What factors can you list that influence your own happiness?
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Solutions A History of Modern Psychology - 10th Edition - Chapter 12

12.1 Explain the differences between the Gestalt and behaviorist revolts against Wundtian psychology.
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12.2 What did the Gestalt psychologists mean by the expressions “the whole is different from the sum of its parts” and “there is more to perception than meets the eye?”
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12.3 If you looked at a book on a table and said, “I see a book on the table,” what error would you be committing, according to Titchener?
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12.4 Describe the antecedent influences on Gestalt psychology.
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12.5 How did the Zeitgeist in physics change toward the end of the nineteenth century? How did that change influence Gestalt psychology?
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12.6 What is the phi phenomenon? How is it produced? Why couldn’t the phi phenomenon be explained by Wundt’s psychology?
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12.7 Why did some people mistakenly assume that Gestalt psychology dealt only with perception?
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12.8 Describe some of the principles of perceptual organization.
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12.9 How do studies of perceptual constancies support the Gestalt viewpoint?
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12.10 Why has the word Gestalt caused problems for the movement?
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12.11 Give an example of K√∂hler’s research on insight on the island of Tenerife.
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12.12 How does insight learning differ fromthe trial-anderror learning described by Thorndike?
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12.13 How did Wertheimer apply Gestalt principles of learning to creative thinking in humans?
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12.14 How does isomorphism relate perception to underlying neurological correlates?
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12.15 What factors impeded the acceptance of Gestalt psychology in the United States?
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12.16 On what grounds has Gestalt psychology been criticized?
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12.17 On what grounds did Gestalt psychologists criticize behaviorism?
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12.18 Describe Lewin’s concept of a field theory and tell how it was influenced by physics.
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12.19 How does field theory deal with motivation and with social psychology? What is social action research?
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12.20 In what ways did Gestalt psychology affect psychology as a whole?
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Solutions A History of Modern Psychology - 10th Edition - Chapter 11

11.1 What does Priscilla the Fastidious Pig have to do with the history of psychology? By what techniques was this animal trained?
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11.2 Describe the three stages in the evolution of the behaviorist school of thought.
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11.3 Which psychologists can be classified as neobehaviorists? On what major points did they agree?
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11.4 What was operationism and how did it influence the neobehaviorists of the 1920s and 1930s?
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11.5 What are pseudo-problems? Why was the notion of pseudo-problems so appealing to behaviorists?
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11.6 Give an example of an intervening variable. Describe how it can be defined operationally.
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11.7 What did Tolman mean by purposive behaviorism?
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11.8 How did Hull’s behaviorism differ from the views of Watson and Tolman?
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11.9 What role did the spirit of mechanism play in Hull’s approach to behaviorism?
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11.10 Define Hull’s concepts of primary and secondary drives and primary and secondary reinforcement.
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11.11 What is the hypothetico-deductive method? List some criticisms of Hull’s system.
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11.12 Describe Skinner’s views on theorizing, the mechanistic spirit, intervening variables, and the use of statistics.
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11.13 Distinguish between operant and respondent conditioning. How is operant conditioning used to modify behavior?
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11.14 What is Skinner’s law of acquisition? How did it differ from Thorndike’s and Hull’s positions on learning?
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11.15 What is the difference between fixed-interval and fixed-ratio reinforcement schedules? Give a few examples of each.
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11.16 How would you apply the method of successive approximation to train a dog to walk in a circle?
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11.17 On what grounds has Skinner’s system been criticized?
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11.18 How do Bandura’s and Rotter’s views on cognitive factors differ from Skinner’s views?
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11.19 How is modeling used to change behavior? Give an example.
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11.20 How do people high in self-efficacy differ from people low in self-efficacy?
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11.21 Distinguish between self-efficacy and locus of control in terms of their effects on behavior.
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Solutions A History of Modern Psychology - 10th Edition - Chapter 10

10.1 What ethical and moral considerations do you think were involved in the Little Albert study?
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10.2 How did Watson establish a conditioned emotional response in Albert? Did that response generalize to other stimuli? If so, to what kind of stimuli?
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10.3 WasWatson concerned about the practical value of behaviorism? If your answer is yes, to what areas of everyday life did he apply his findings?
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10.4 Describe Watson’s approach to child rearing. What were the results of that approach within his family?
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10.5 In Watson’s 1913 article, what criticisms did he make of structuralism and functionalism? On what basis did he argue that applied psychology could be called scientific?
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10.6 How were Watson’s ideas received by the younger generation of psychologists?
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10.7 What research methods did Watson accept for a scientific psychology?
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10.8 Why was Watson’s use of verbal reports considered to be controversial?
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10.9 How did the behaviorists’ view of the role and task of human subjects differ from that of the introspectionists?
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10.10 Discuss how Watson’s subject matter and methodology continued the atomistic, mechanistic, empiricistic tradition.
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10.11 How did Watson distinguish between responses and acts? How did he distinguish between explicit and implicit responses?
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10.12 Describe Watson’s views on instinct and thought processes.
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10.13 How do the studies of Albert and Peter support Watson’s ideas on the role of learning in emotion?
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10.14 Explain the reasons for behaviorism’s popular appeal.
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10.15 Describe Lashley’s law of mass action and principle of equipotentiality.
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10.16 In what way did Lashley’s research results discredit a portion of Watson’s system?
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10.17 Do you think Watson’s behaviorism would have become so popular without the earlier work of the functional psychologists? Explain your answer.
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10.18 On what grounds did McDougall criticize Watson’s form of behaviorism?
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Solutions A History of Modern Psychology - 10th Edition - Chapter 9

9.1 Why was Clever Hans considered such a sensation throughout the Western world?
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9.2 In what ways had psychology changed by the second decade of the twentieth century?
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9.3 Describe the basic tenets of Watson’s behaviorism and show how they differed from the positions of Wundt and Titchener.
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9.4 Why was Watson so opposed to the study of consciousness and the method of introspection?
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9.5 What were the three major forces Watson brought together to form his new psychology?
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9.6 What role did positivism play in the scientific Zeitgeist of the twentieth century?
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9.7 Describe the development of animal psychology since the work of Romanes and Morgan. Why was it difficult to be an animal psychologist?
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9.8 In what ways did Loeb, Washburn, Small, and Turner influence the new animal psychology?
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9.9 Discuss the impact of the Clever Hans incident on animal psychology. What did Pfungst’s experiments demonstrate?
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9.10 Relate Thorndike’s connectionism to the older philosophical notion of association.
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9.11 Describe Thorndike’s puzzle-box research and the laws of learning suggested by the results.
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9.12 Discuss the overall significance for the development of behaviorism of Thorndike’s research on human and animal learning.
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9.13 Describe Pavlov’s initial focus on mentalistic experiences and his attempts to control outside influences on his research.
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9.14 How would you design an experiment to condition a rabbit to salivate to the ringing of a cell phone?
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9.15 How did Pavlov’s work influence Watson’s behaviorism?
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9.16 Compare Pavlov’s concept of conditioned reflex with Bekhterev’s associated reflex.
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9.17 What is Twitmyer’s experience of interest to historians of psychology?
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9.18 Discuss the Zeitgeist in American psychology in the second decade of the twentieth century with reference to ideas promoted by the structuralists and functionalists.
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9.19 How did the functionalist school influence Watson’s behaviorism?
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